The Gregorian mission, sometimes known as the Augustinian mission,was the mission sent by PopeGregory the Great to the Anglo-Saxons in 596 AD. Headed by Augustine of Canterbury, its goal was to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity. By the death of the last missionary in 653, they had established Christianity in southern Britain. Along with Irish and Frankish missionaries, they converted Britain and influenced the Hiberno-Scottish missions to the Continent.
By the time the Roman Empire recalled its legions from the province of Britannia in 410, parts of the island had already been settled by pagan Germanic tribes who, later in the century, appear to have taken control of Kent and other coastal regions. In the late 6th century Pope Gregory sent a group of missionaries to Kent, to convertÆthelberht, King of Kent, whose wife, Bertha of Kent, was a Frankish princess and practising Christian. Augustine was the prior of Gregory’s own monastery in Rome and Gregory prepared the way for the mission by soliciting aid from the Frankish rulers along Augustine’s route.
In 597 the forty missionaries arrived in Kent and were permitted by Æthelberht to preach freely in his capital ofCanterbury. Soon the missionaries wrote to Gregory telling him of their success and that conversions were taking place. The exact date of Æthelberht’s conversion is unknown but it occurred before 601. A second group of monks and clergy was dispatched in 601 bearing books and other items for the new foundation. Gregory intended Augustine to be the metropolitan archbishop of the southern part of the British Isles, and gave him authority over the British clergy but in a series of meetings with Augustine the local bishops refused to acknowledge this.
Before Æthelberht’s death in 616 a number of other bishoprics had been established but after that date, a pagan backlash set in and the see, or bishopric, of London was abandoned. Æthelberht’s daughter, Æthelburg, marriedEdwin, the king of the Northumbrians, and by 627 Paulinus, the bishop who accompanied her north, had converted Edwin and a number of other Northumbrians. When Edwin died, in about 633, his widow and Paulinus were forced to flee to Kent. Although the missionaries could not remain in all of the places they had evangelised, by the time the last of them died in 653, they had established Christianity in Kent and the surrounding countryside and contributed a Roman tradition to the practice of Christianity in Britain.
As an answer to a question. More info can probably be found at some of the more Anglo-Saxon oriented sites linked to in the archive and at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_dress (as a good start). The Anglo-Saxon clothes seems related, though not identical, to Norse clothing. However some things , like the tunic, the cloak and tight trousers (for men) seems to have been common in many medieval cultures.
My apologies to the ones of Anglo-Saxon and other Heathen traditions.
It would seem (me being Swedish) that i have been a bit Ethnocentric in my ways of portraying things. Sometimes i´m so focused on my own folklore/culture that i forget that there are many rich traditions of Heathenry and culture out there.
If this is not enough or if there are more specific questions i will consult the a friend of mine who is an Anglo-Saxon Heathen and hit the (more academic) books.
Anglo_Saxon scolars, feel free to correct me.
Anglo-Saxon clothing usually utilized only three types of fabric. Wool was a coarse material which was used for most garments. Lower-class people, such as slaves (theow) and poorer peasants (gebur) could only use wool for their garments, even garments worn against the skin. Linen, harvested from the flax plant, was a finer material which was used for garments that were worn close to the skin by better-off peasants (kotsetlas and geneatas) and those above them in the social hierarchy. Silk was an extremely expensive material, and it was used only by the very rich, and then only for trim and decoration.
The BBC reported that 51 headless Vikings were found buried at Ridgeway Hill, near the southern seaside town of Weymouth, in June 2009 “during investigative excavation work before construction started on a controversial £87m relief road through the ridgeway.”
The regnal dates for the earlier kings are known only from Bede, who piously expunged apostates (Unde cunctis placuit regum tempora computantibus, ut ablata de medio regum perfidorum memoria, idem annus sequentis regis), and seems also to have deliberately suppressed details of short or joint reigns in order to produce an orderly sequence (he had no place for Æðelwald or Eormenred). Generally more than one king ruled in Kent. Some kings are known mainly from charters, of which several are forgeries, while others have subjected to tampering in order to reconcile them with the erroneous king lists of chroniclers, baffled by blanks, and confused by concurrent reigns and kings with similar or identical names.
Even modern historians are tempted to fill out the blank prehistoric period with mythological creatures, combine kings with similar names, and suppress multiple kingship, or at least reduce it down to some regular dyarchy. It is commonplace for the later kings to be referred to as subkings, but the actual rank used is always rex, never regulus (except for a late legend concerning Eormenred). The usual style was simply King of Kent (rex Cantiae) or King of the Kentish Men (rex Cantuariorum). Territorial division within Kent is not alluded to, except by Eadberht I (rex Cantuariorum terram dimidii) and Sigered (rex dimidie partis prouincie Cantuariorum).Hengestno chartersfather of Oisc or OctaunknownHorsano chartersbrother of HengestunknownOisc
died 685HlothhereLotharius rex Cantuariorum
Lotharius rex Cancie
Hlothariusson of Eorcenberht; reigning jointly with Eadric685 to 686 (Bede)EadricEadricus rex Cantuariorum
Edricusson of Ecgberht I; reigning jointly with Hlothherekilled 687MulMulo rege regnum Cantiebrother of Cædwalla, King of Wessexacceded 687 or 688,
still reigning 692SwæfheardSuebhardus rex Cantuariorum
Sueaberdus rex Cantieson of Sæberht, King of Essex, reigning jointly in Kent with Oswine and Withredfl. 689SwæfberhtGabertus
Suebertus rex Cantuariorumjointly with Oswinefl. 689 to 690OswineOswynus rex Cantie
Oswinus rex Cantuariorumjointly with Swæfberht and Swæfheardacceded 691 or 692,
died 23 April 725WihtredWihtredus rex Cantie
Wythredus rex Cantuariorum
Wihtredus rex Cantuariorumson of Ecgberht I; reigned jointly with Swæfheardsucceeded 725Ælfricno chartersson of Wihtred; succeeded jointly with his brothers Æðelberht II and Eadberht I725 to 748Eadberht IEadbertus rex Cantuariorum terram dimidii
Ædbeortus rex Cantieson of Wihtred; reigned jointly with his brothers Æðelberht II and ÆlfricSubject to Mercian overlordship725 to 762Æðelberht IIÆthilberhctus rex Cantie
Athelbertus rexson of Wihtred; reigned jointly with his brothers Eadberht I and Ælfric, and nephew EardwulfunknownEardwulfEarduulfus rex Cantuariorum
Eardulfus rex Cantiaeson of Eadberht I; reigned jointly with Æðelberht II; contemporary with Archbishop Cuðbert (740-760)fl. 762Eadberht IIEadberht rex Cantiae
Eadbertus rex Cantiejointly with Sigeredfl. 762SigeredSigiraed rex Cantiae
Sigeredus rex dimidie partis prouincie Cantuariorumjointly with Eadberht IIunknownEanmundEanmundus rexcontemporary with Archbishop Bregowine (761-764)fl. 764 to 765HeaberhtHeaberhtus rex Cantie
Heaberhtus rexjointly with Ecgberht IIfl. 765 to 779Ecgberht IIEcgberhtus rex Cantie
Egcberhtus rex Cantiae
Egcberht rex Cantie
Egcberth rex Cantie
Egcberhtus rexjointly with Heaberhtfl. 784EalhmundEalmundus rex Canciæfather of Ecgberht IIIUnder the direct rule of Offa of Mercia (785–796).796 to 798, deposedEadberht III Prænno charters; coins:
EADBEARHT REXDeposed and mutilated byCœnwulfacceded 797 or 798,
died 807CuðredCuthredus Rex Cantiae
Cuðred rex Cantiae
Cuðredus rex cantwariorumbrother of Cœnwulf and Ceolwulffl. 809CœnwulfCeonulfus Christi gracia rex Merciorum atque provincie Canciebrother of Cuðred and Ceolwulf; also King of Mercia (796-821)fl. 822 to 823CeolwulfCeolwulf rex Merciorum vel etiam Contwariorum
Ceolwulf rex Merciorum seu etiam Cantwariorumbrother of Cuðred and Cœnwulf; also King of Mercia (821-823)deposed in 825Baldredno charters; coins:
BALDRED REX CANTexpelled by Æðelwulf in 825825 to 839Ecgberht IIIEcgberht rex occidentalium Saxonum necnon et Cantuariorumson of Ealhmund; reigned in Kent jointly with his son Æðelwulf; also King of Wessex (802-839)825 to 858ÆðelwulfAetheluulf rex
Æðeluulf rex Cantrariorum
Æthelwolf gratia Dei rex Kanciae
Ætheluulf rex Cancie
Aeðeluulf Rex Cancie
Aetheluulf gratia Dei rex occidentalium Saxonum seu etiam Cantuuariorum
Aeðeluulf gratia Dei rex occidentalium Saxonum nec non 7 Cantuariorum
Eðelwulf rex occidentalium Saxonum nec non et Cantuariorum
Eðeluulfus rex Occidentalium Saxonum necnon et Cantuariorum
Æðelulf rex misericordia Dei occidentalium Saxonum ; necnon & Cantuuariorumjointly with his father Ecgberht III and son Æðelstan; also King of Wessex (839-856)fl. 839 to 851Æðelstan IEdelstan rex Kancie
Aedelstan rexjointly with his father Æðelwulffl. 855 to 866Æðelberht IIIAeðelberht rex
Æthelbertus occidentalium Saxonum necnon et Cantuariorum rex
Aeðelbearht rex Occidentalium Saxonum seu Cantuuariorum
Aeðælberht rex Occidentalium Saxonum seu Cantuariorum
Eðelbearht rex occidentalium Saxonum nec non et Cantuariorumjointly with his father Æðelwulf; also King of Wessex (860-866)866 to 871Æðelred IEðelred rex occidentalium Saxonum . non et Cantwariorum
Aeðered rex Occidentalium Saxonum necnon et Cantuariorumson of Æðelwulf; also King of Wessex (866-871)
“Academics at Dundee University have helped recreate the face of a Viking woman whose skeleton was unearthed in York more than 30 years ago.
The facial reconstruction was achieved by laser-scanning her skull to create a 3D digital model.
Eyes were then digitally created, along with hair and a bonnet, to complete the look.
The project was part of a £150,000 investment at York’s Jorvik Viking Centre.
The Dundee academics were brought in by the centre’s owners, the York Archaeological Trust, as part of a project to bring York’s Vikings to life.
The female skeleton used was one of four excavated at Coppergate in York.
The reconstruction process was carried out using specialist computer equipment which allowed the user to “feel” what they were modelling on screen. The anatomy of the face was modelled in “virtual clay” from the deep muscles to the surface.
Dundee University researcher Janice Aitken took the digital reconstruction and added the finishing touches.
She explained: “I use the same sort of software as is used to create 3D animations in the film industry. I digitally created realistic eyes, hair and bonnet and added lighting to create a natural look.
“It is very satisfying knowing that the work we create at Dundee University will be seen by thousands of visitors to Jorvik and being part of a process which can so vividly help people to identify with their ancestors.”
The reconstruction now features in York Archaeological Trust’s new Investigate Coppergate exhibition, which examines the Vikings’ diet and investigates the diseases from which the Vikings suffered.
The exhibition also looks at the final battles of the Viking age in York that heralded the end of the Viking era and the coming of the Normans.
It features skeletal remains showing battle wounds and a full skeleton with evidence of severe trauma, alongside discussion about how they died.
Sarah Maltby, York Archaeological Trust director of attractions, said: “Archaeological research capabilities have moved on considerably since the original Coppergate excavations which took place over 30 years ago.
“The new exhibition areas mark a shift in how archaeological finds are analysed and the techniques available to researchers.”