The Vikings brought Native Americans to Iceland a thousand years ago. Or so says Spanish and Icelandic researchers, who in 80 Icelanders have found a special type of DNA found only in Native Americans and East Asians.
Originally the researchers considered that this exotic DNA came from Asians, who in modern times have settled in Iceland, but when the researchers examined the 80 Icelanders’ family tree, it turned out that all originate from the same area in southern Iceland, and that their DNA profile is at least 300 years old.
“Iceland was isolated from the rest of the world from the 900s onwards. The most likely explanation is that the genes originated from an Indian woman, brought in from America by the Vikings around the year 1000, “said DNA expert Carles Lalueza-Fox, who has participated in the new
The investigation responds in historical circles, as researchers long believed that the Vikings came to America 500 years before Columbus.
Original Swedish Article: http://varldenshistoria.se/vikingarna/vikingarna-fick-barn-med-indianer
The old Icelandic calendar is not in official use any more, but some Icelandic holidays and annual feasts are still calculated from it. It has 12 months, broken down into two groups of six often termed “winter months” and “summer months”. The calendar is peculiar in that the months always start on the same weekday rather than on the same date. Hence Þorri always started on a Friday sometime between 9 and 15 and January of the Julian calendar, Góa always starts on a Sunday between 8 and 14 February of the Julian calendar.
Icelandic magical staves (sigils) are symbols credited with magical effect preserved in various grimoires dating from the 17th century and later. According to the Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft, the effects credited to most of the staves were very relevant to the average Icelanders of the time, who were mostly subsistence farmers and had to deal with harsh climatic conditions.
NameDescriptionImageAð fá stúlkuTo get a girl.ÆgishjálmurHelm of awe; to induce fear and to protect against abuse of power.AngurgapiCarved on the ends of barrels. Purpose unclear.BrýnslustafirFor use on whetstones.DraumstafirTo dream what your heart desires.DreprúnTo kill an enemy’s cattle.FeingurA fertility rune.GapaldurTwo staves, kept in the shoes, gapaldur under the heel of the right foot and ginfaxi under the toes of the left foot, to magically ensure victory in bouts of Icelandic wrestling (glíma).GinfaxiHólastafurTo open hills.KaupalokiTo prosper in trade and business (19th century manuscript).LásabrjóturTo open a lock without a key.MáladeilanTo win in court.NábrókarstafurNecropants, a pair of pants made from the skin of a dead man that are capable of producing an endless supply of money.ÓttastafurTo induce fear.Rosahringur minniA lesser circle of protection.SmjörhnúturButterknot, to ensure butter was procured through non-magical means.Stafur gegn galdriStaves against witchcraft.Stafur til að vekja upp draugTo invoke ghosts and evil spirits.ÞjófastafurFor use against thieves.TóustefnaTo ward off foxes.Varnarstafur ValdemarsValdemar’s Protection Stave; increases favor and happiness.VatnahlífirProtection against drowning.VegvísirTo guide people through rough weather.VeiðistafurFor luck in fishing.